CSSB Centre for Structural Systems Biology
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Bosse Group

Quantitative Virology

Prof. Dr. Jens Bosse

Group Leader

+49 040 8998 87645

Home Institute

Hannover Medical School

We focus on illuminating the rules that govern the dynamic assembly of viruses in their native cellular environment. Using cutting edge imaging and analysis tools, we can define where, when and how viruses assemble at single-particle precision. Using this knowledge, we aim to identify potential bottlenecks in viral productivity as specific pharmacological target structures.

Research Projects


Viruses assemble in a complex order of consecutive morphogenesis events. Our research aims to illuminate the spatiotemporal regulation of these morphogenesis at the single-particle level. We use three-dimensional live-cell microscopy to quantify the kinetics and dynamics of viral macromolecular complexes in living cells at the single particle level and create computational pipelines to analyze large image datasets. Correlative electron microscopy is used to complement our measurements with ultrastructural data on the cellular organization.

Our research ideally complements projects at CSSB by adding knowledge on the kinetics and dynamics of viral processes to structural approaches.

Currently, we are working on the question of how virus capsid-membrane association and dissociation is regulated. To this end, we cooperate closely with our international Wellcome Trust Collaborators by integrating kinetic models into multimodal frameworks of virus morphogenesis.


Alphafold predictions of Herpesvirus genes:

We recently generated proteome-wide AlphaFold2 structure predictions for the human herpesviruses HSV-1, HCMV and KSHV. The 3D structures and can be viewed interactively at:


Research Team


Group Leader

Jens Bosse
Phone:+49 040 8998 87645


PhD Student

Enrico Caragliano
Phone:+49 40 8998 87646


PhD Student

Alice Grün
Phone:+49 040 8998 87646


Master's Student

Yannick Jensen


Research Technician

Elena Kotova


PhD Student

Saskia Sanders
Phone:+49 40 8998 87646


PhD Student

Jonas Schröder
Phone:+49 40 8998 87647


Postdoctoral Scientist

Dr. Timothy Soh
Phone:+49 40 8998 87711


PhD Student

Doerte Stalling




Borst EM, Harmening S, Sanders S, Caragliano E, Wagner K, Lenac Roviš T, Jonjić S, Bosse JB, Messerle M (2022) A Unique Role of the Human Cytomegalovirus Small Capsid Protein in Capsid Assembly.  mBio. e0100722. doi: 10.1128/mbio.01007-22

Flomm FJ, Soh TK, Schneider C, Wedemann L, Britt HM, Thalassinos K, Pfitzner S, Reimer R, Grünewald K, Bosse JB (2022) Intermittent bulk release of human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 18(8):e1010575. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010575.

Caragliano E, Brune W, Bosse JB (2022) Herpesvirus Replication Compartments: Dynamic Biomolecular Condensates? Viruses. 14(5):960. doi: 10.3390/v14050960.

Wedemann L, Flomm FJ, Bosse JB (2022) The unconventional way out - Egress of HCMV through multiviral bodies. Mol Microbiol. doi: 10.1111/mmi.14946

Caragliano E, Bonazza S, Frascaroli G, Tang J, Soh TK, Grünewald K, Bosse JB, Brune W (2022) Human cytomegalovirus forms phase-separated compartments at viral genomes to facilitate viral replication. Cell Reports. 38(10):110469. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.110469.


Aho V, Salminen S, Mattola S, Gupta A, Flomm F, Sodeik B, Bosse JB, Vihinen-Ranta M (2021) Infection-induced chromatin modifications facilitate translocation of herpes simplex virus capsids to the inner nuclear membrane. PLoS Pathog. 17(12):e1010132. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1010132

Pfitzner S, Bosse JB, Hofmann-Sieber H, Flomm F, Reimer R, Dobner T, Grünewald K, Franken LE (2021). Human Adenovirus Type 5 Infection Leads to Nuclear Envelope Destabilization and Membrane Permeability Independently of Adenovirus Death Protein. Int J Mol Sci. 22(23):13034.

Jung JM, Ching W, Baumdick ME, Hofmann-Sieber H, Bosse JB, Koyro T, Möller KJ, Wegner L, Niehrs A, Russu K, Ohms M, Zhang W, Ehrhardt A, Duisters K, Spierings E, Hölzemer A, Körner C, Jansen SA, Peine S, Königs I, Lütgehetmann M, Perez D, Reinshagen K, Lindemans CA, Altfeld M, Belderbos M, Dobner T, Bunders MJ (2021) KIR3DS1 directs NK cell-mediated protection against human adenovirus infections. Sci Immunol;6(63):eabe2942. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abe2942.

Rink MR, Baptista MAP, Flomm FJ, Hennig T, Whisnant AW, Wolf N, Seibel J, Dölken L, Bosse JB (2021) Concatemeric Broccoli reduces mRNA stability and induces aggregates. PLoS One. 16(8):e0244166. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244166.

Pearson VR, Bosse JB, Koyuncu OO, Scherer J, Toruno C, Robinson R, Abegglen LM, Schiffman JD, Enquist LW, Rall GF (2021) Identification of African Elephant Polyomavirus in wild elephants and the creation of a vector expressing its viral tumor antigens to transform elephant primary cells. PLoS One;16(2): e0244334. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244334.


Soh TK, Bosse JB (2020) What is in a Viral Stock: Perspectives and Current Limitations of Flow Virometry. Preprints, 2020110409. doi: 10.20944/preprints202011.0409.v1

Flomm FJ, Soh TK, Schneider C, Britt HM, Thalassinos K, Pfitzner S, Reimer R, Grünewald K, Bosse JB (2020) Intermittent bulk release of human cytomegalovirus through multivesicular bodies. bioRxiv.424954. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.31.424954

Rink MR, Baptista MAP, Hennig T, Whisnant AW, Wolf N, Seibel J, Dölken L, Bosse JB (2020) Concatemeric Broccoli reduces mRNA stability, aggregates and induces p-body formation. bioRxiv. 414458. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.07.414458

Pfitzner S, Hofmann-Sieber H, Bosse JB, Franken LE, Grünewald K, Dobner T (2020) Fluorescent protein tagging of adenoviral proteins pV and pIX reveals 'late virion accumulation compartment'. PLoS Pathog.16(6): e1008588. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008588.


Wang C, Lunelli M, Zschieschang E, Bosse JB, Thuenauer R, Kolbe M (2019) Role of flagellar hydrogen bonding in Salmonella motility and flagellar polymorphic transition. Molecular Microbiology 112:1519–1530.

Wyler E, Franke V, Menegatti J, Kocks C, Boltengagen A, Praktiknjo S, Walch-Rückheim B, Bosse JB, Rajewsky N, Grässer F, Akalin A , Landthaler M (2019) Single-cell RNA-sequencing of herpes simplex virus 1-infected cells connects NRF2 activation to an antiviral program. Nat Commun 10:1–14.

Langeneckert AE, Lunemann S, Martrus G, Salzberger W, Hess LU, Ziegler AE, Poch T, Ravichandran G, Matschl U, Bosse JB, Tiegs G, Fischer L, Koch M, Herkel J, Oldhafer KJ, Schramm C, Altfeld M (2019) CCL21‐expression and accumulation of CCR7+ NK cells in livers of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. Eur J Immunol 49:758–769.

Flomm F, Borst EM, Günther T, Reimer R, de Vries L, Schneider C, Grundhoff A, Grünewald K, Messerle M, Bosse JB (2019) Human cytomegalovirus nuclear capsid motility is non-directed and independent of nuclear actin bundles. bioRxiv 641266.


Nauth T, Huschka F, Schweizer M, Bosse JB, Diepold A, Failla AV, Steffen A, Stradal T, Wolters M, Aepfelbacher M (2018) Visualization of translocons in Yersinia type III protein secretion machines during host cell infection. PLoS Pathog 14:e1007527.


Buch A, Müller O, Ivanova L, Döhner K, Bialy D, Bosse JB, Pohlmann A, Binz A, Hegemann M, Nagel C (2017) Inner tegument proteins of Herpes Simplex Virus are sufficient for intracellular capsid motility in neurons but not for axonal targeting. PLoS Pathog 13:e1006813.

Flomm F, Bosse JB (2017) Potential mechanisms facilitating herpesvirus-induced nuclear remodeling: how are herpesvirus capsids able to leave the nucleus? Future Virology 12:583–592.


Bosse JB, Enquist LW (2016) The diffusive way out: herpesviruses remodel the host nucleus, enabling capsids to access the inner nuclear membrane. nucleus 7:13–19.


Bosse JB, Hogue IB, Feric M, Thiberge SY, Sodeik B, Brangwynne CP, Enquist LW (2015) Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:E5725–E5733.

Bosse JB, Tanneti NS, Hogue IB, Enquist LW (2015) Open led illuminator: A simple and inexpensive LED illuminator for fast multicolor particle tracking in neurons. PLoS ONE 10:e0143547.

Hogue IB, Bosse JB, Engel EA, Scherer J, Hu J, del Rio T, Enquist LW (2015) Fluorescent protein approaches in alpha herpesvirus research. Viruses 7:5933–596

Hagen C, Dent KC, Zeev-Ben-Mordehai T, Grange M, Bosse JB, Whittle C, Klupp BG, Siebert CA, Vasishtan D, Bäuerlein FJB, Cheleski J, Werner S, Guttmann P, Rehbein S, Henzler K, Demmerle J, Adler B, Koszinowski U, Schermelleh L, Schneider G, Enquist LW, Plitzko JP, Mettenleiter TC, Grünewald K (2015) Structural Basis of Vesicle Formation at the Inner Nuclear Membrane. Cell 163: 1692–1701.


Bosse JB, Virding S, Thiberge SY, Scherer J, Wodrich H, Ruzsics Z, Koszinowski UH, Enquist LW, Racaniello VR (2014) Nuclear Herpesvirus Capsid Motility Is Not Dependent on F-Actin. mBio 5:429–14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01909-14

Pogoda M, Bosse JB, Conzelmann K-K, Koszinowski UH, Ruzsics Z (2014) A modified screening system for loss-of-function and dominant negative alleles of essential MCMV genes. PLoS ONE 9:e94918.

Hogue IB, Bosse JB, Hu J-R, Thiberge SY, Enquist LW (2014) Cellular mechanisms of alpha herpesvirus egress: live cell fluorescence microscopy of pseudorabies virus exocytosis. PLoS Pathog 10:e1004535. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004535


Ruzsics Z, Borst EM, Bosse JB, Brune W, Messerle M (2013) Manipulating cytomegalovirus genomes by BAC mutagenesis: strategies and applications, p 37–57.

Wagner FM, Brizic I, Prager A, Trsan T, Arapovic M, Lemmermann NA, Podlech J, Reddehase MJ, Lemnitzer F, Bosse JB, Gimpfl M, Marcinowski L, MacDonald M, Adler H, Koszinowski UH, Adler B (2013) The Viral Chemokine MCK-2 of Murine Cytomegalovirus Promotes Infection as Part of a gH/gL/MCK-2 Complex. PLoS Pathog 9:e1003493. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003493

Granstedt AE, Bosse JB, Thiberge SY, Enquist LW (2013) In vivo imaging of alphaherpesvirus infection reveals synchronized activity dependent on axonal sorting of viral proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110:E3516–E3525.

Bosse JB, Ragues J, Wodrich H (2013) Fast Generation of Stable Cell Lines Expressing Fluorescent Marker Molecules to Study Pathogen Induced Processes. In: Bailer SM, Lieber D (eds) Virus-Host Interactions. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp 153–169


Marcinowski L, Lidschreiber M, Windhager L, Rieder M, Bosse JB, Rädle B, Bonfert T, Györy I, de Graaf M, Prazeres da Costa O, Rosenstiel P, Friedel CC, Zimmer R, Ruzsics Z, Dölken L (2012) Real-time transcriptional profiling of cellular and viral gene expression during lytic cytomegalovirus infection. PLoS Pathog 8:e1002908.

Pogoda M, Bosse JB, Wagner FM, Schauflinger M, Walther P, Koszinowski UH, Ruzsics Z (2012) Characterization of conserved region 2-deficient mutants of the cytomegalovirus egress protein pM53. J Virol 86:12512–12524.

Bosse JB, Bauerfeind R, Popilka L, Marcinowski L, Taeglich M, Jung C, Striebinger H, von Einem J, Gaul U, Walther P, Koszinowski UH, Ruzsics Z (2012) A beta-herpesvirus with fluorescent capsids to study transport in living cells. PLoS ONE 7:e40585.


Maninger S, Bosse JB, Lemnitzer F, Pogoda M, Mohr CA, von Einem J, Walther P, Koszinowski UH, Ruzsics Z (2011) M94 is essential for the secondary envelopment of murine cytomegalovirus. J Virol 85:9254–9267.


Lösing J-B, Di Fiore S, Ritter K, Fischer R, Kleines M (2009) Epstein–Barr virus BDLF2–BMRF2 complex affects cellular morphology. J Gen Virol 90:1440–1449.


Gaspar M, Gill MB, Lösing J-B, May JS, and Stevenson PG (2008) Multiple functions for ORF75c in murid herpesvirus-4 infection. PLoS ONE 3:e2781.